Journal of Architectural Conservation

Volume 15 Number 2 July 2009

Contents:

Editorial Professor Peter Swallow

Belton Boathouse: A Review of its Repair and Restoration for the National Trust Nick Cox

'Where Shall She Live?' The History and Designation of Housing for Working Women in London 1880-1925 Emily Gee

Impacts of Fire on Stone-Built Heritage Miguel Gomez-Heras, Stephen McCabe, Bernard J. Smith and Rafael Fort

Fills for the Repair of Marble: A Brief Survey  Jonathan Kemp

Cantilever, Hanging or Pencheck Stone Stairs Ian Hume

 

 

Editorial

Read the Editorial by Professor Peter Swallow MBE

 

 

Abstracts and author information

 

Belton Boathouse

A Review of its Repair and Restoration for the National Trust

Nick Cox

 

Belton boathouse (listed Grade II) is an early work of Anthony Salvin and a rare surviving example of a boathouse in the Swiss style. Having suffered severe decay in the twentieth century, it has now been carefully repaired and restored.

The design of the building uses all the usual main materials of construction but in a decorative manner. The roof is made of Collyweston stone roof tiles, each hand-shaped into a fish-scale; the plastering on the exterior is in a high relief basket-weave pattern; the joinery is all wood-grained and the leaded-light windows have a decorative latticework of lead cames and both tinted and etched glass.

The repair and restoration of the boathouse involved considerable initial study, research and analysis, without which the project would not have been possible. It illustrates how a building in an advanced state of decay can be brought back to life by a well-informed process and skilled craftsmanship.

 

 

Nick Cox

Nick Cox is an architect in private practice who has been working on historic buildings for 20 years. He trained at Cambridge University and Oxford Polytechnic and was awarded a SPAB Scholarship in 1990. He currently runs his own practice in Oxfordshire.

 

 

'Where Shall She Live?'

The History and Designation of Housing for Working Women in London 1880-1925

Emily Gee

 

The ladies’ residential chambers of the late nineteenth century provided models for a new building type: purpose-built, architect-designed hostels for the new waves of low-waged women working in Britain’s cities. From 1900, a vast increase of clerical women workers meant there was a great need for affordable and respectable accommodation. The resultant work­ing women’s hostels are defined by their homely architectural style and the provision of private spaces and communal areas, which together enabled independence and a mutual support structure. Many of the buildings were also architecturally impressive with notable Edwardian architects much involved in their design. A handful of these buildings have been listed and a further few deserve assessment in the future. This paper aspires to set a historical context for the building type so that assessments can be made for the designation and conservation of this little-known building type that played an important role in the housing of twentieth-century working women.

 

 

Emily Gee

Emily Gee has worked at English Heritage since 2001 and is Team Leader (South) in the Heritage Protection Department, advising Government on statutory designation in London and the South East. In addition to casework, this role includes some policy work for the Heritage Protection Reform and thematic designation. She has degrees from Smith College, the University of Virginia and the Architectural Association and is a member of the IHBC.

 

 

Impacts of Fire on Stone-Built Heritage

Miguel Gomez-Heras, Stephen McCabe, Bernard J. Smith and Rafael Fort

 

Fire is a major threat to stone-built cultural heritage and this paper is a review of the existing research into fire damage on building stone. From early research based on anecdotal evidence of macroscopic observations, scientists have moved on to develop various techniques for approaching the investigation of fire damage to stone (high-temperature heating in ovens, lasers, real flame tests), different aspects of the damage that fire does have been learned from each, developing understanding of how microscopic changes affect the whole.

This paper seeks to highlight the need for a greater awareness of the threat that fire poses (and the need to take precautionary measures in the form of fire-suppression systems), of the immediate effects, and of the long-term management issues of natural stone structures which have experi­enced fire.

 

 

 

Miguel Gomez-Heras BSc (Hons), EurPhD, FGS

Miguel Gomez-Heras’ research focuses mainly on the impacts of fire and thermal behaviour

on stone decay. He participated in the Working Group 2 of COST Action C17 – Built Heritage: Fire Loss to Historic Buildings. He is research fellow in the Weathering Research Group in the School of Geography, Archaeology and Palaeoecology, Queen’s University Belfast.

 

Stephen McCabe BSc (Hons), PhD

Stephen McCabe is a post-doctoral research fellow in the Weathering Research Group, School of Geography, Archaeology and Palaeoecology, Queen’s University Belfast. His research focuses on the impact of complex stress histories on the decay of historic stone-built heritage.

 

Bernard J. Smith BSc (Hons), PhD, CGeog

Bernard Smith is a professor in Geomorphology and leads the Weathering Research Group, Queen’s University Belfast. His main research interests are in stone decay proc­esses in natural and urban environments, especially salt decay and thermal controls investigated through exposure trials and laboratory simulations.

 

Rafael Fort BSc (Hons), PhD

Rafael Fort is senior researcher and director of the Spanish Instituto de Geologia Economica (CSIC-UCM). His main research interest is in petrological and petrophys­ical studies of building stone. He also leads the Petrology Applied to Heritage Conser­vation Research Group at this institute.

 

 

 

Fills for the Repair of Marble: A Brief Survey

Jonathan Kemp

 

This paper is concerned with the approaches, materials and techniques used by conservators in the filling of voids in damaged marble surfaces. It will focus on methods for making small-scale surface patches and fills to cracks and fissures rather than covering descriptions of fills that increase the structural integrity of an object.

 

Comments will be made throughout on the environmental, economic, ethical and aesthetic demands that inform the various approaches. For ex­ample, the requirements for a fill viewed at eye level will be different from those for one made on a more remote aspect; equally one made in an ex­posed harsh aspect may have different requirements from one made in a controlled environment.

 

 

Jonathan Kemp

Jonathan Kemp has over fifteen years’ experience as a senior sculpture conservator and consultant working on a range of movable and immovable artefacts dating from between 2000 BC to the twentieth century. He has worked extensively in stone, plaster, fresco, ceramic and artificial stone in both public and private UK holdings and on international projects in Spain, the Ukraine, and, most recently, Iran. Currently he is a senior sculpture conservator at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London

 

Cantilever, Hanging or Pencheck Stone Stairs

Ian Hume

 

Cantilever stone staircases are found all over the world in many of the historic buildings constructed over the last 400 years, but while they are generally very robust, their structural action is poorly understood and con­sequentially they are often treated incorrectly. This paper describes how they work, the reasons they survive and gives some pointers as to how they should be looked after.

 

Ian Hume

Ian Hume is a conservation accredited structural engineer who has been dealing with historic structures since 1975. He was Chief Structural Engineer at English Heritage for ten years and now concentrates on teaching structural engineering processes in the historic environment. He chairs the UK Conservation Accreditation Register for Engineers.

 

 

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